Guljana is located at Longitude 84' 54’ 09” and latitude 24' 57’ 43" on a height of 92 meter MSL(mean sea level), situated at a distance of 32 KM north west of district town Gaya, 6.5 KM east of Sub Divisional/Block town Tekari and 8 KM west of railway station Belaganj town and about 85 KM south of State capital city Patna (Bihar State).
Guljana is bounded by village Bhawanpur to the north, vill Sindani and Belarhi to the east, vill. Mussi and Pura to the south and vill Alalpur to the west and is encircled from east by river Budhnadi, south and west by river Dardha and is situated to the south of Belaganj-Tekari road between KM 7-8.
Guljana comes under Gaya Dist,Tekari Sub Division,Block and Police sataion, Pura Panchayat and PO- Ark Dhibaria. Its Cadastral village number is 124 on the cadastre map of the village.
HISTORY OF GULJANA
As the name suggests, Guljana is an Urdu word meaning ‘as dear as flower’ which indicates that the village was predominantly a muslim village. In old cadastre map, its Urdu name appears as ‘Gulzana’ which means “born out of flowers”. Some of the names indicating land mark/areas in the village like (Roza Par ) also supports this view point.
With the gradual resurgence of approaching Indian independence during the thirties and emergence of Jinnah as a provocative mouth piece of muslims, a feeling was sent across the muslims that they may not be safe in an independent India. Muslims sensing the fear gradually, peacefully and deliberately started shifting to their places of convenience even to the cities and towns which now come under Bangladesh and Pakistan. It is a different story altogether whether they are any better there as compared to their counterparts in India today. However leaving it to the future to decide, I intend stating that once a muslim dominated Guljana, now had a room for others to settle and consolidate by buying landed properties sold by the outgoing muslims families.
Land in vill. Sindani.
Immigration of muslims even from muslim dominatrd village like Sindani by selling their land to bhumihars of Guljana proves two points. Firstly, muslims in
Sindani preferred to sell their land to bhumihars in Guljana in preference to bhumihars of vill. Bhawanpur, Mussi or Pura. It could be only because of the fact that hindu-muslim relations in Guljana must have been very cordial. Secondly, the settlements of bhumihars in these three villages must have been older than that of Guljana.
Situation During The Mughal Period.
The 9 generations of chronology of the two oldest families of Sonebhadra 1 (SOVARAN SINGH), Sonebhadra 2 (MARDAN SINGH) and 7 generations of Bhardwaj 1(RAJARAM SINGH) reveal that Guljana has a live history of the bhumihars for at least 200 years living in this village dating back to around 1780-1800 AD which means that it was a transition phase of dwindling era of Mughals and advent of East India Company- the onset of the British Raj. Mughal system of ruthless collection of taxes without corresponding irrigational facilities, Dola system of subjugation of newly wed females and consequent forcible conversion to Islam were some of the few barbaric acts of the Mughals which compelled some of the Hindu rulers(Bhumihars/Rajputs) to take some remedial measures to overcome this malady. Background of Settlements in Village Gulajana. If we closely look and appreciate the topographical dispositions of Guljana, we find that villages east of Budhnadi (Dardha) eg, Sindani, Belarhi, Lachhmipur, Quadirpur etc are still dominated by muslim community.Ancestors of Maharaja Gopal sharan singh of Tekari Estate (His Nana & great grand fathers) must have visualized as per military tactics that Guljana is the only village west of Budhnadi which must be made a stronghold to counter and repel the spread of Islam west of river Dardha due to the peculiarity of its location. It was with this aim in view that Maharaja’s ancestors started shifting bhumihars from as far a place as UP and also started encouraging and settling the migrants from other places oppressed by Muslims to come and make Guljana their homestead. HeterogeneousMix
Despite different religious beliefs the Hindu-Muslim populace in Guljana co-existed with mutual respect and harmony with each other. An anecdote in this regard will not be out of place to mention which proves the Hindu-Muslim mutual love and regards to each others. Way back in 1935-36, when muslims had left Guljana to settle somewhere else, Prithwi Singh (great grandson of Kanhai Singh) alongwith Sudama Singh went to a bicycle repair shop to get to get his cycle repaired in Gaya town at around 3 P.M. The shop owners were Noor Mohammad and Dil Mohammad. When Prithwi Singh told them to repair the cycle urgently as he had to return to Guljana which is quite a distance away from Gaya for a cyclist. Noor Mohammad immediately fixed his cycle which cost a rupee. When Prithwi Singh paid him the amount, he returned it saying that he once belonged to Guljana and it was a God sent opportunity for him to do something for his “once-upon-a-time” village-mates. It will be pertinent to mention here that with one rupee in the forties (1930-40) a family of four could feed themselves for a week!!! We can simply fancifully imagine the cost of feeding a family of four for a week in the year 2009. This clearly goes to show that had the muslims left Guljana with sour feelings in their hearts, such rare display of attachments and filial bondage would not have been expressed by the two muslim brothers!! Demographic Composition.
Demographic caste composition of Guljana as of now is as under:-
Note;- It should be well understood that although accounting of population as per census procedure is caste based, my aim of enumerating above castes is histo-rically objective and not subjective as I do not believe in superiority of any caste.
CHRONOLOGY OF BHUMIHARS IN GULJANA My aim is only to chronologiseand describe the migratory history and genea- logical tables of bhumihars only as other castes have not kept/maintained their historical flux and influx of ancestors and neither they take any pride in keeping their ancestors records preserved for posterity. For viewing the family tree of various bhumihars you may klick the Downloads.The details of bhumihars settled in Guljana in the year 2009 are as under:- Sonebhadra Bhumihar.
Sonebhadra Bhumihars source their origin to Rishi “Vats” who has been named in the Vedas also. Due to their origin from Rishi vats, all Sonebhadra Bhumihars belong to the “Vats” Gotra. The three Sonebhadra Bhumihar families in village Guljana are as described below:-
Bhardwaj or Bhardawaji as they are colloquially called source their origin from Rishi Bhardwaj and thus belong to Bhardwaj Gotra. The sole surviving most elderly person amongst Bhardwaj Bhumihars as on today is Shri Sudama Singh who has given me the entire history of Bhardwaj 1,3 and 4 families which I most gratefully acknowledge as his part of contribution to the village history. As per him, Bhardwaj 1 family was brought to be settled in Guljana from some village in UP State by ancestors of Maharaja Gopal Sharan Singh with the aim of buttressing his stronghold west of river Dardha (Budh Nadi) against the last of the Mughals as explained in the heading ‘Background of settlement’ above.
There were following four Bhardwaj families in Guljana but as on today, complete Bhardwaj 4 and two of the three branches of bhardwaj 3 families have perished. The details of bhardwaj 1 to 4 families are as per Bhardwaj 1 to 4 in the Bhardwaj genealogy.
The word ‘Athrab’ seems to be a colloquial slang for ‘Atharva’ taking the name from Rishi ‘Atharva’. Athrab Bhumihars belong to‘Shandilya’ Gotra originating from Rishi ‘Shandilya’. This means that Rishi Shandilya though belonging to Atharva descendence started his own dynasty disregarding his ancestral origin.
Here I come to put a final full stop to my efforts of collecting, collating, sifting and disseminating this small pieces of facts, figures and dwindling information which was nearing extinction. I am grateful to Shri Sudama Singh who was kind enough to piece up the rare facts to me even in his late eighties and despite his poor state of health. It was my earnest desire to weave through these disjointed threadsand link up the missing links together so that it could be of some meaningful use not only to the people away from Guljana but even to the inhabitants of the village.
You readers, have seen for yourselves that some people in this village do not even know the names and details of their great grandfathers!! Hope this effort of mine does prove to be a reference point and a spring board to all those who want to know what they want to know about their ancestors and kick off to their own like wise mission. Please do feel free to enrich me and my efforts by sending your valuable views on this presentation. God speed and good luck to all of you.(Lt Col Vidya Sharma).